Getting the Most From The Marine GPS System
At the heart of modern marine navigation is the Marine GPS System, which is a network of 24 dedicated Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites spread out in geo-stationary orbit some 20,000km (12,500 miles) above the earth.
As the earth rotates below, at least four of the satellites are above
the horizon at any one time and 'visible' from anywhere on earth. Each satellite knows precisely where it is, and kindly broadcasts this information at very accurately predetermined times.
The active antenna of our GPS set records the times taken for the transmissions to reach it and computes a three dimensional fix in terms of latitude, longitude and altitude to a high degree of accuracy.
But there's a lot more functionality to satellite navigation than position fixing...
What the Marine GPS System Can Do
As long as you give it a clue as to your intended route by entering a start and a destination waypoint, along with as many intermediate waypoints as may be required your GPS unit can perform a number of other useful tricks, including displays of:
- Course Made Good (CMG) - the bearing from the starting point to the current position;
- Cross Track Error (XTE) - the distance off either side of the desired course, often shown on a 'rolling road' graphic;
- Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) - the date and time of arrival at the destination based on current speed over the ground;
- Estimated Time on Route - the time to go to arrival at the destination based on current speed over the ground;
- Ground Speed - the velocity in knots relative to the sea bed;
- Velocity Made Good (VMG) - the closing speed towards the destination.
Should you so wish alarms can be set to activate when various events occur, including:
- When your anchor drags. This one will really get you out of your bunk in a hurry;
- When the cross track error exceeds a preset distance;
- When you're within a preset distance of your destination;
- When you're within a preset distance of an identified hazard, ie a rock, shoal or reef;
- If the GPS loses its fix.
All GPS sets have a dedicated Man Overboard (MoB) button. Pressing this will record the current position (as a waypoint) and displays the course and distance to get back to the point at which the MoB button was activated.
These days, GPS Units are combined with chartplotters of which there are two basic types:
A Handheld Marine GPS Unit or a Fixed Unit?
With the functionality of handheld marine GPS units being much the same as fixed units, many sailors of small boats opt for the AA battery powered handheld GPS due to benefits to be gained by its portability.
But fixed GPS units are hooked up to the boat's 12v domestic supply, which providing your battery charging regime is up to scratch, will be more dependable than AA batteries.
And there's no denying that the larger screen size of the fixed GPS units makes them a lot easier to use than the handheld marine GPS units.
But there are real benefits in having both types:~
- System redundancy - If one fails you have a backup
- Emergency use - Keep the handheld GPS unit in the emergency grab bag along with a handheld VHF radio. Now if you're unlucky enough to have to take to the life raft, you can not only broadcast your predicament, but tell your rescuers precisely where you are.
Next: The Chartplotter as Part of the Marine GPS System
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